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Plastic surgery goes to the movies: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery looks at facial disfigurement


Newswise — July 24, 2023 – Characters with facial disfigurement have long been a recurring theme in films. Their characteristics and outcomes lend insights into perceptions of facial deformities and the effects of plastic surgery, reports a study in The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery under the guidance of Editor-in-Chief Mutaz B. Habal, MD, FRCS, FACS of Tampa, Florida. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Movie characters who undergo successful plastic surgery to improve their facial appearance are more likely to have happy endings, according to the new research by Young Suk Kim, BA, and Kun Hwang, MD, PhD, of Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. They believe their findings relate to the cultural meanings of facial disfigurement, as well as to the psychological benefits of facial plastic surgery.

Film analysis shows negative associations with facial disfigurement

The researchers searched movie databases – IMDb (Internet Movie Database) and TMDB (The Movie Database) – to identify modern visual media depicting characters with disfigured faces. The analysis included 48 characters from 45 films directly related to the theme of facial disfiguration. While most films were from the United States, countries around the world were represented.

The movies were produced between the 1930s to the 2020s, with the highest proportion (20%) from the 1980s. Nearly three-fourths of characters were rated as being in the most severe categories of facial disfigurement. Examples of films with characters having “critical” facial disfigurement included The Elephant Man and Mask.

About 80% of disfigured characters were viewed as negative, described by terms such as demonic, villainous, or violent. Just 20% were described positively – for example, hero or human. “This seems to implicitly reflect the creators’ biased view that presents disfigured faces in a negative light,” the researchers write. After adjustment for other factors, society’s perceptions of disfigured faces were not related to their effect on personality. Rather, the authors suggest, “a negative personality was formed due to psychological atrophy and self-esteem problems, not the disfigured face itself.”

Surgery to improve facial appearance linked to happy endings

In the films, 35% of characters underwent surgery in an attempt to overcome their facial disfigurement. Other types of attempts included masks or magic. The attempts improved the character’s facial appearance in about 70% of cases, including 94% of those who underwent surgery. Characters who underwent surgery were 56 times more likely to improve than those who tried other treatments.

Overall, 67% of characters had fortunate or happy endings, while the rest had misfortunate endings. Characters whose appearance improved were more likely to have happy endings: nearly eight times more likely than those who did not improve. The researchers add, “It is notable that some characters experienced misfortune even though their facial damage improved, while others became happy without improvement.”

The authors discuss their findings in the context of the cultural and psychological meanings of facial disfigurement. The association between successful surgery and happy endings for characters with facial disfigurement is consistent with evidence on the positive psychological effects of plastic surgery for disfigured individuals.

Despite its many risks and side effects, “there is no doubt that facial plastic surgery enhances overall well-being and self-confidence,” the researchers conclude. “The results of this film analysis study, which showed plastic surgery can improve the face and improve quality of life, can be seen as realistic and statistically significant.”

Read [Disfigured Faces Depicted in Modern Visual Media]

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About The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery

The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery serves as a forum of communication for all those involved in craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery. Coverage ranges from practical aspects of craniofacial surgery to the basic science that underlies surgical practice. Affiliates include 13 major specialty societies around the world, including the American Association of Pediatric Plastic Surgeons, the American Academy of Pediatrics Section of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, the American Society of Craniofacial Surgeons, the Argentine Society of Plastic Surgery Section of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, the Asian Pacific Craniofacial Association, the Association of Military Plastic Surgeons of the U.S., the Brazilian Society of Craniofacial Surgeons, the European Society of Craniofacial Surgery, the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery, the Japanese Society of Craniofacial Surgery, the Korean Society of Craniofacial Surgery, the Thai Cleft and Craniofacial Association, and the World Craniofacial Foundation.

About Wolters Kluwer

Wolters Kluwer (EURONEXT: WKL) is a global leader in professional information, software solutions, and services for the healthcare, tax and accounting, financial and corporate compliance, legal and regulatory, and corporate performance and ESG sectors. We help our customers make critical decisions every day by providing expert solutions that combine deep domain knowledge with specialized technology and services.

Wolters Kluwer reported 2022 annual revenues of €5.5 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, maintains operations in over 40 countries, and employs approximately 20,000 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands.

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